There are some great lessons on teaching inference on the web. You may want to start by searching for titles of texts you already teach. Here are some great sites that include full lessons that are Common Core aligned.
http://commoncore.americaachieves.org/ Register as a new user and you can view videos of master teachers teaching the Core, download editable lesson plans that are Common Core aligned, and view lists of reputable web sites that will help you align your practice to the Core.
http://www.sharemylesson.com/ There are close to 300,000 lessons on this site, and many are exemplar lessons for the Common Core.
http://udlexchange.cast.org/home This site has hundreds of lessons that are both Common Core aligned and designed using the principles of Universal Design for Learning, which allows all students to access rigorous curriculum.
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You should try ReadWorks.org as well! They offer tons of reading passages, each that comes with a question set designed to scaffold students into making inferences and drawing conclusions, start here with 5th grade passages: http://www.readworks.org/books/passages?order=field_batch_value&sort=desc&keyword=&tid=42&lexile%5Bmin%5D=-1&lexile%5Bmax%5D=1501&domain=All&tid_1=All
In order to introduce inference-making, I will have some balloons on my desk, a plate, a fork, and perhaps a vase of flowers. Students walk in and say, "Mrs. Mofield, is it your birthday?!" I then explain that they just used inductive reasoning to develop an inference. They used clues to develop a guess, an inference, based on evidence they see. Then, we talk about how this skill is applied in reading. " What can you infer about the character? What can you infer happened before this chapter? etc." These are guesses based on the evidence we have in the book so far.
Then, if I really want to teach logic, I get a little more advanced with them and explain that in inductive reasoning we an be wrong with our logic, because really, it could have been my anniversary and my husband just sent several gifts to be nice. We can only do so much with evidence. Only in deductive reasoning can you prove anything.
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