Don't forget the basics:
Wait time: Ask the question, wait, then name a person to answer the question. Wait again. The first "wait" means more students are considering the answer. The second "wait" is to allow that particular student to process a response.
Use a randomizing strategy to call on students: Two kinds of students will raise their hands -- the ones who know the answer, and those who want to look like they know the answer. If you have created a learning environment where it is safe to be wrong or to say, "I don't know," use a strategy other than raised hands to call on students. I use notecards -- student names appear in the cards twice. There is none of the drama or elementary flavor of popsicle sticks, and students know that they can be called on multiple times. If you prefer high tech, there are also some decent apps that will do this.
Watch your language: The words we choose can affect how students perceive the question and how they perceive your beliefs about their abilitites. Instead of saying, "Can anyone . . ." try saying, "Tell us . . ." The former implies that only a few are able to answer. The latter implies everyone can.
Don't ask questions you don't want to know the answer to: Often, in the name of courtesy, we ask students questions when we really mean to give a directive. "Will you sit down now?" implies that the answer could be "no" just because it is framed as a question. There is nothing impolite about saying, "Sit down now . . . thank you."
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These comments are very valuable. As stated, too often we "ask" students "will you please get started on your assignment .. will you please sit down .. when we should just say what we want to be done followed by a thank you.
I find that many new teachers ask mostly questions that require a "yes, no, or one word response."
Teachers should be reminded to pose questions in a manner that encourages students to "share their thoughts and comments." Teachers can then go to another student with questions such as "what thoughts can you add to the response?" or "do you have any different ideas?" Soon students may learn to listen and elaborate. This questioning strategy can get students involved in communication leading to higher level thinking.
Planning a focus question and a few possible follow-up questions helps me. By anticipating misconceptions students may have, I'm better able to think of follow-up questions.
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